The volcano on the Eyjafjallajökull glacier in Iceland, the island country located at the northernmost tip of the world, erupted violently on April 14 and 17, 2010. Iceland is a volcanic island located directly above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has 130 volcanoes that erupt, approximately, in five-year cycles.
According to this eruption, approximately 800 residents in the vicinity had to evacuate (according to reports by the Sankei Shimbun). The falling ash from the eruption covered all of Europe, resulting in the closure of many airports.
Imaging Using TerraSAR-X (Synthetic Aperture Radar)
Using the synthetic aperture radar satellite "TerraSAR-X," PASCO analyzed changes in the crater, and in the snow and ice, due to the eruption. Areas that showed changes before and after the volcanic eruption were extracted from images based on backscattered microwaves energy received from the ground surface.
This map was drawn up with the aim of providing insight into the changes that arose due to the volcanic eruption. The focus was placed on the bursting of glacial lakes accompanying the eruption, as well as changes in the crater as observed from images acquired on March 20 and 31, 2010, and images acquired after the eruption on April 22.
|Acquisition dates and times||:||March 20, 2010, 7:48 (UTC)
March 31, 2010, 7:48 (UTC)
April 22, 2010, 7:48 (UTC)
|Angle of incidence||:||37°|
|Acquisition orbit||:||Descending orbit|
|Polarized wave||:||Single polarization (HH)|
|Ground resolution||:||Azimuth 3 m, range 3 m|
Emergence of Volcano Crack Observed
We compared images taken in the same area, under similar imaging conditions. The image acquisition after the small volcanic eruptions on March 20 and 31, 2010, and the image acquired after the major eruption on April 22, showed the emergence of a crater after the eruption.
Collapse of Glacier Lake Observed
The glacier lake is believed to have collapsed under the impact of the eruption. Satellite images show the glacier lake from before the eruption and after the collapse, as well as the appearance of the site.
History of Information Released
|First release date||:||June 3, 2010 (Thursday)|
From the perspective of understanding the damage situation caused by the disaster, and of providing information to the relevant organizations, PASCO carried out estimations for the areas of damage immediately utilizing SAR satellite images, which are not impacted by weather conditions.
We express our deepest sympathy to all who have been affected by the disaster.
We will strive even harder to be of service to all through the application of our spatial information processing and analysis technologies, as well as through our disaster prevention consulting expertise, in order to obtain accurate information on the disaster situation and assist in the recovery of the affected areas.
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