March and April 2010 Monitoring of Volcanic Activity in Iceland

The volcano on the Eyjafjallajökull glacier in Iceland, the island country located at the northernmost tip of the world, erupted violently on April 14 and 17, 2010. Iceland is a volcanic island located directly above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has 130 volcanoes that erupt, approximately, in five-year cycles.
According to this eruption, approximately 800 residents in the vicinity had to evacuate (according to reports by the Sankei Shimbun). The falling ash from the eruption covered all of Europe, resulting in the closure of many airports.

Imaging Using TerraSAR-X (Synthetic Aperture Radar)

Using the synthetic aperture radar satellite "TerraSAR-X," PASCO analyzed changes in the crater, and in the snow and ice, due to the eruption. Areas that showed changes before and after the volcanic eruption were extracted from images based on backscattered microwaves energy received from the ground surface.
This map was drawn up with the aim of providing insight into the changes that arose due to the volcanic eruption. The focus was placed on the bursting of glacial lakes accompanying the eruption, as well as changes in the crater as observed from images acquired on March 20 and 31, 2010, and images acquired after the eruption on April 22.


Imaging Specifications

Acquisition dates and times : March 20, 2010, 7:48 (UTC)
March 31, 2010, 7:48 (UTC)
April 22, 2010, 7:48 (UTC)
Imaging mode : StripMap
Angle of incidence : 37°
Acquisition orbit : Descending orbit
Polarized wave : Single polarization (HH)
Ground resolution : Azimuth 3 m, range 3 m
Image
Image

Emergence of Volcano Crack Observed

We compared images taken in the same area, under similar imaging conditions. The image acquisition after the small volcanic eruptions on March 20 and 31, 2010, and the image acquired after the major eruption on April 22, showed the emergence of a crater after the eruption.

Image acquired on March 20 and 31
Image acquired on March 20 and 31
Image acquired on April 22. A crater has emerged.
Image acquired on April 22. A crater has emerged.

Collapse of Glacier Lake Observed

The glacier lake is believed to have collapsed under the impact of the eruption. Satellite images show the glacier lake from before the eruption and after the collapse, as well as the appearance of the site.

Image acquired on March 20 and 31. Satellite images before the collapse, and of the glacier lake.
Image acquired on March 20 and 31. Satellite images before the collapse, and of the glacier lake.
Image acquired on April 22. Site appearance after the collapse.
Image acquired on April 22. Site appearance after the collapse.

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History of Information Released

First release date : June 3, 2010 (Thursday)

From the perspective of understanding the damage situation caused by the disaster, and of providing information to the relevant organizations, PASCO carried out estimations for the areas of damage immediately utilizing SAR satellite images, which are not impacted by weather conditions.


We express our deepest sympathy to all who have been affected by the disaster.
We will strive even harder to be of service to all through the application of our spatial information processing and analysis technologies, as well as through our disaster prevention consulting expertise, in order to obtain accurate information on the disaster situation and assist in the recovery of the affected areas.


< TerraSAR-X : InfoterraGmbH, Distribution [PASCO] >
*The reuse or copying of images and other information available here without prior permission is strictly prohibited.

[ Copyright ]

The copyright for the documents recorded in the disaster and emergency photos of this page belongs to PASCO CORPORATION.
In addition, the copyright for the use of TerraSAR-X in this page is also the property of PASCO CORPORATION.
Please contact us for permission to distribute or copy the information (documents and images) recorded in this page.

[ Disclaimer ]

PASCO CORPORATION strived to make the information in this page as accurate as possible at the time of publication; however PASCO CORPORATION does not guarantee integrity or accuracy of the information recorded in this page. PASCO CORPORATION accepts no liability for any loss or damage directly or indirectly, arising from the use of this information or contents. In case the information provided in this page is evidently different from the actual, in order to correct it please contact us.

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