October and November, 2010 Merapi Volcanic Eruption Monitoring

On October 26, 2010, Mt. Merapi, located on the island of Java in Indonesia, started to show eruptive activity for the first time in five years.
The Merapi-style pyroclastic flows that are characteristic of Mt. Merapi were generated frequently alongside explosive eruptions, and there are concerns that the impact of the massive volume of volcanic products may lead to future long-term damage, such as in the form of mudslides.

Imaging Using TerraSAR-X (Synthetic Aperture Radar)

Using the high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite TerraSAR-X, PASCO attempted to extract the changes arising as a result of the series of eruptive activity. TerraSAR-X is able to conduct imaging during the volcanic activity in a safe manner, without being impacted by the plumes and ashes.


Imaging Specifications

Acquisition dates and times : October 26, 2010, 22:21 (UTC)
November 6, 2010, 22:21 (UTC)
Angle of incidence : 37°
Imaging mode : StripMap
Acquisition orbit : Descending orbit
Polarization mode : Single polarization (HH)
Ground range resolution : Approximately 3 m

The temporal TerraSAR-X images, acquired on October 26 and November 6, 2010, were superimposed.
Taking advantage of the characteristics* of TerraSAR-X images, we have extracted the areas that show changes in ground surface unevenness.
The areas shown in dark red or blue are believed to be areas that have undergone changes as a result of volcanic activity.

*Characteristic of TerraSAR-X: The backscattering intensity of microwaves differs according to the condition (degree of roughness) of the ground surface unevenness.

The image on the right is a 3D bird's eye view representation obtained using terrain elevation information (SRTM: Elevation grid data obtained by Shuttle Radar Topography Mission).
By comparing aerial photographs taken by Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) from the same angle, we observed that, like the aerial photographs, the changes extracted by TerraSAR-X showed the flow range of the pyroclastic flows.

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History of Information Released

First release date:December 28, 2010 (Tuesday)

From the perspective of understanding the damage situation caused by the disaster, and of providing information to the relevant organizations, PASCO carried out estimations for the areas of damage immediately utilizing SAR satellite images, which are not impacted by weather conditions.

We express our deepest sympathy to all who have been affected by the disaster.
We will strive even harder to be of service to all through the application of our spatial information processing and analysis technologies, as well as through our disaster prevention consulting expertise, in order to obtain accurate information on the disaster situation and assist in the recovery of the affected areas.

<TerraSAR-X : InfoterraGmbH, Distribution [PASCO]>
*The reuse or copying of images and other information available here without prior permission is strictly prohibited.

[ Copyright ]

The copyright for the documents recorded in the disaster and emergency photos of this page belongs to PASCO CORPORATION.
In addition, the copyright for the use of TerraSAR-X in this page is also the property of PASCO CORPORATION.
Please contact us for permission to distribute or copy the information (documents and images) recorded in this page.

[ Disclaimer ]

PASCO CORPORATION strived to make the information in this page as accurate as possible at the time of publication; however PASCO CORPORATION does not guarantee integrity or accuracy of the information recorded in this page. PASCO CORPORATION accepts no liability for any loss or damage directly or indirectly, arising from the use of this information or contents. In case the information provided in this page is evidently different from the actual, in order to correct it please contact us.

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